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Paraphasia is the term given to phonemic or word errors found in the expressive language of fluent aphasia. These errors are neither due to motor production deficits found in dysarthria, such as weakness or paralysis of the speech muscles, nor from a motor programming deficit found in apraxia. Paraphasias arise from higher level language errors in the selection of sounds or words. Unlike anomia, the inability to find the word, the speaker knows the word to say, but because of paraphasic errors, the word spoken is a nonword or the wrong word. This entry provides a brief overview of paraphasias, which can be described along a continuum based on types and numbers of errors.

Literal or Phonemic Paraphasia

Literal/phonemic paraphasia involves a single sound error in a ...

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