In 1963, educator and reading researcher Ken Goodman walked into a primary classroom and asked individual children to read a whole story aloud. In response to a sentence in the text: A little monkey had it, one child read: “The little monkey had it.” Goodman was struck by the young reader’s knowledge of English determiners to make such an error. With this and accumulated evidence from thousands of readers, Goodman discovered miscues and developed miscue analysis (MA) as a research tool. By the term miscue, he rejected the concept of error as a negative aspect of reading; rather, he defined it as a process of a reader making sense of a written text. Oral reading is not an accurate rendition of text, all readers ...

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