In caring for patients with voice disorders, medical management by an otolaryngologist or a laryngologist (i.e., an otolaryngologist with specialized training in care of voice, swallowing, and airway disorders) often serves to accompany behavioral management. Behavioral management involves voice therapy intervention performed by a certified Speech–Language pathologist with specialization in assessing and treating voice disorders. Medical management includes specific pharmacologic and surgical interventions for the voice-disordered population. This entry discusses the following laryngeal diagnoses and their medical management: laryngitis/upper respiratory infection (URI), vocal fold hemorrhage, phonotraumatic vocal fold lesion, vocal process granuloma, laryngopharyngeal reflux disease (LPRD), vocal fold paresis/paralysis, presbylarynx, spasmodic dysphonia (SD), and essential voice tremor (EVT).


Often, URI will manifest as symptoms of cold with associated dysphonia (laryngitis). The voice will drop in pitch ...

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