Since the mid-1990s, electrically measured late auditory evoked potentials, otherwise known as cortical auditory evoked potentials (CAEPs), have become widely used in clinical research and practice as measures of auditory perception and discrimination and as biomarkers of cortical plasticity across the life course and cortical dysfunction. More recently, there has been a broader focus on the role of oscillatory cortical potentials and their clinical utility as neural markers of cognitive effort during an auditory task or online speech tracking. This entry explores these different types of cortical potentials, with a focus on CAEPs that are more commonly used in clinical practice, particularly in infants or adults who are unable to provide a reliable behavioral response. Understanding how the cortical potentials are affected by stimulus and ...

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