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The term kinesics commonly refers to gesture that encompasses movement in the hands, arms, shoulders, and upper torso that differentiates this visible action from facial expression and body orientation. Gesture is easily confused with motoric action, but it is the intent of the speaker to transact meaning through movement that differentiates this communicative action from nongesture movement. Additionally, for physical movement to be considered a gesture, there must exist distance of time, space, or content between the action and its referent. For example, an action with an object in hand such as when combing hair, while being a purposeful action, is not a gesture. Gesture can be further described by its communicative function, its degree of representation, and the components of movement that comprise a ...

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