Genetics is the scientific study of genes, variation, and heredity in living organisms. Human genetics, then, is the study of inherited variations. The human body is made up of millions of cells, which contain mitochondria and nuclei (except for red blood cells, which do not have a nucleus). Mitochondria are known as the powerhouse of the cell and surround the nucleus within the cell membrane. Chromosomes, located within each cell nucleus, can be thought of as a long string of pearls (nuclear genes). These genes are strung together by a chemical substance known as DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid). The DNA between the genes is noncoding, while the nuclear DNA within each gene contains the DNA code or instructions for the different proteins in human bodies. ...

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