International Branch Campuses

As of 2018, there were approximately 260 institutions around the world considered international branch campuses (IBCs). These vary tremendously in their physical forms, their ownership, and degree-granting powers. An IBC is an entity partially or wholly owned by a public or private higher education institution, operating outside its home country, that offers academic programmes and issues degrees. A broad range of institutions, originating both from established study destinations in the global North (e.g., the United Kingdom, United States, France) and newer study destinations in the global South (e.g., Russia, Spain, China, India, Iran, and Uganda) have opened IBCs.

IBCs operate in a fast-changing regulatory field and this affects many aspects of their operations. In response to recent host state policies, IBCs are required to issue newly ...

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