Budgeting Processes in Higher Education Institutions

Budgeting processes in higher education consist of the timeline, mechanisms, and activities that take place to determine an institution’s annual budget. This entry, which focuses on the United States, covers the main sources of revenues and expenditures that compose institutional budgets, common forms of state budgeting models used to allocate appropriations to institutions, and a discussion of institutional budget reporting, with a focus on public institutions.

Sources of Revenue and Expenditures


Institutions depend on several sources of revenue. The largest two sources for U.S. public institutions are state dollars and federal dollars. State funding comes in the form of (a) general fund allocations for institutional operating expenses, which support core teaching and research functions; (b) capital budgets for infrastructure and building facilities; and (c) financial aid ...

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