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Title IX

Title IX of the 1972 Education Amendments helped to revolutionize the gender dynamics of higher education in the United States. Passed as part of an omnibus education reauthorization bill that updated and extended federal financial aid programs, the regulation stated:

No person in the United States shall, on the basis of sex, be excluded from participation in, be denied the benefits of, or be subjected to discrimination under any education program or activity receiving Federal financial assistance. (P.L. 92–318, §901)

The policy addressed long-standing sex discrimination in college admissions and educational programming. Schools found in violation of the regulation risked having federal dollars—which include student financial aid—revoked. The only programs not included in this provision were schools whose single-sex nature was based on long-standing religious tenets, military ...

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