Nobel Prizes

Nobel Prizes are recognised globally as the most prestigious set of international awards that are given for work that benefits humanity. Swedish and Norwegian institutions award prizes annually, in recognition of outstanding achievements in chemistry, literature, peace, physics, physiology or medicine, and economics. The Nobel Prizes were established in 1895 from the will of Swedish scientist Alfred Nobel, much of whose fortune accrued from the invention of dynamite. This was a novel method for stabilizing the notoriously unstable explosive nitroglycerine by adsorbing it into diatomaceous earth or, in German, ‘Kieselguhr’. This entry discusses the history of the prizes, how they are awarded, and controversies over award decisions.

Prizes in five categories were first awarded in 1901. The Prize in the Economic Sciences, established by the Sveriges ...

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