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Kyoto Protocol

The Kyoto Protocol is an international treaty established in Kyoto, Japan, on December 11, 1997, by the third session of the Conference of the Parties of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. It entered into force on February 6, 2005. The aim of the protocol is to stabilize human-induced climate change, which disproportionately affects poor areas of Africa, Asia, and Latin America, compromising food security and sustainable development. The protocol binds all industrialized countries listed in Annex 1 to lower national greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by agreed-on targets compared with 1990 levels: 5% for the first commitment period (2008–2012) and 18% for the second (2013–2020). Under the principle of “common but differentiated responsibilities,” Annex 1 countries commit to reducing GHG emissions not only ...

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