Monoculture encompasses all of the environmental, technological, cultural, and political–economic forces focused on producing an exclusive set of food commodities. Within an agrofood systems context, monoculture refers to a system of food production that maintains a regimented, uniform design without variation and in a scalable manner. Monocultural products are almost always engineered for efficiency, speed, consistency, and impact.

In recent years, the methods employed to maintain monocultural food production have increasingly been questioned and challenged by proponents of sustainable agriculture and permaculture. These critics point to the more deleterious environmental impacts of industrial food production. In the developed world, various environmental crises related to monoculture—such as water and air pollution, transportation, infrastructure, and health disparities—have prompted both consumers and producers to demand more diverse food choices. ...

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