Different learners have different characteristics, needs, and preferences. They differ, for example, in their learning goals, their knowledge about the domain, their cognitive traits, and their learning styles. Furthermore, learning takes place in different situations and contexts. For example, a learner might learn at home in a quiet environment or on the bus while going to school or university. Individual differences as well as differences in the situation and context of learning can affect the learning process and can make learning either easy or difficult for a particular person in a particular situation.

As David Jonassen and Barbara Grabowski pointed out, many studies showed that considering individual differences can help students to learn more effectively. Furthermore, the consideration of context and situation has shown to lead ...

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