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Biofeedback learning environments (BLEs) are holistic and systemic educational settings established through traditional biofeedback modalities, virtual reality, or online classrooms. BLEs are holistic as they simultaneously use multimedia information (e.g., graphics, sound, texts, video) to enrich and develop students’ learning experiences. They are systemic in the sense that they allow students to interact with biofeedback equipment, providing real-time and personalized information about educational outcomes. The purpose of this entry is to discuss how traditional and new biofeedback systems have been used to create BLEs. First, the uses of BLEs for educational and clinical purposes are highlighted. Next, the governing principles of biofeedback systems are presented. Subsequently, traditional and new biofeedback systems commonly used to create BLEs are discussed. Finally, key pedagogical perspectives on BLEs are ...

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