The term universal design for learning (UDL) is attributed to David Rose, Anne Meyer, and colleagues at the Center for Applied Special Technology (CAST) in Wakefield, Massachusetts. When the term was first used in the mid-1990s, it acknowledged the conceptual foundations of universal design in the field of architecture but sought to apply the benefits of accessible design to curriculum and instruction. A motivating factor for this philosophical approach was that students with disabilities were increasingly being educated in general education classrooms where they encountered barriers to learning. The promise of UDL suggested that, by understanding the special academic needs of individuals with disabilities, it would be possible to proactively design flexible learning materials and environments with embedded supports, thereby reducing or eliminating the need ...

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