Adoptions are transfers of children to new parents or caregivers. Two adoption types can be distinguished: (1) domestic and (2) intercountry. The first takes place within a nation-state, the second refers to immigration, because a child moves to a new country. In both cases, the adopted children and their new parents can belong to different cultures, languages, and races. Adoption is a welfare service and a measure of protection for children. Abandoned or relinquished children as well as those removed from their homes by authorities should receive a new family in accordance with the best interests of the child. However, adoption services charge a fee, which has to be paid by the adoption applicants.

Due to the involvement of money, authors like Debora Spar and ...

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