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The U.S. Supreme Court, the nation’s highest court, was created by Article III of the U.S. ­Constitution during the Constitutional Convention of 1787. Although it acknowledged the need for a supreme court to address legal disputes, the ­Constitution failed to characterize its structure or procedures. Structuring this new court and ­instituting its procedures was accomplished by congressional action after extensive political debate between federalists, who considered a strong central authority as best suited to grow the economy and ensure political stability of the fledgling nation, and antifederalists, who feared a strong centralized authority and advocated states rights and a more constrained federal authority. Federalists demanded that all law cases be tried in a federal court, thus empowering the federal court as a “court of the ...

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