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This entry on socialism specifies the distinctions between socialism and communism. It suffices here to note that despite their similarities, socialism and communism may not be as closely related as one might suppose. Socialism is difficult to define partly because different types of socialism exist and partly because the meaning of socialism has evolved over time and place. It is also true that socialism does not have a touchstone text. It does not have the equivalent of the Communist Manifesto to which communists may refer. ­Perhaps it is helpful to note that socialism, like ­communism, defined itself, at least initially, in opposition to capitalism. Of particular importance is socialism’s opposition to the competition that capitalism engenders. Instead, socialism seeks to promote cooperation as the antidote ...

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