Shopping-While-Black, also known as retail racism, consumer discrimination, and consumer racial profiling, refers to the practice of discriminating against and racially profiling people of color in the marketplace. Historically, African Americans have overwhelmingly been the victims of consumer discrimination. However, Shopping-While-Black also has an impact on Hispanics, Asians, Native Americans, and, since the terrorist attacks on September 11, 2001, individuals of or perceived to be of Muslim or Middle Eastern descent.

Shopping-While-Black happens in retail establishments and other public accommodations such as hotels and restaurants. It occurs when store personnel, including owners, managers, sales clerks, and security guards, treat customers differently because of their race or ethnicity. This differential treatment involves providing substandard services to shoppers of color, subjecting them to verbal and physical attacks, and ...

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