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Risk society is a global norm. Uncertainty is a permanent feature of contemporary society. Risk can be benign or transformative. Risk can be considered in terms of impact: at its most simplistic, high risk and low risk. Risk is fundamental to decision making in various environments. Risks have endogenous and extraneous origins that materialize spontaneously or through a long gestation. Risk may disable, debilitate, or devastate society. Early-warning systems operate to limit impact, and these have increased in sophistication. When uncertainty can be quantified, solutions can be applied to contain damaging consequences. When risk is random, the damage to society tends to be extensive. Risk containment identifies possibilities based on probabilities. The impact of manufactured risk is currently generating numerous instabilities: Hazards from terrorism ...

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