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A century ago, the world of therapeutic treatment was confusing. Nearly all therapeutic professionals at the time distinguished ailments as either functional or organic. Functional problems are those of the mind, whereas organic ones are primarily physical. The profession was so divided that physicians limited their practice to treating organic illnesses through the use of somatic agents (e.g., drugs and surgery); even psychiatrists were prone to caring for functional issues such as physical abnormalities. In the United States, psychology was still in its infancy. Those who dealt with functional illnesses tended to be either religious healers or lay therapists. In short, the medical profession (as loosely defined) confined itself to dealing with aspects of physical/bodily health. Complaints that were more functional in nature were referred ...

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