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Crime is often concentrated in geographic locales such as neighborhoods. Crime rates in neighborhoods tend to be consistent over time, yet rates can vary greatly between neighborhoods. Factors at the neighborhood level such as poverty, racial makeup, single-parent households, and residential mobility rates are often correlated with crime and criminal activity. Crime and criminal behavior is commonly associated with individual-level factors such as age, gender, substance use, and antisocial traits. However, neighborhood-level factors are equally important in understanding crime rates in geographic areas. By including neighborhood-level factors in crime analyses, researchers can understand the structural factors that may impact individual-level factors and contribute to overall crime. This perspective provides alternative solutions for reducing crime rather than only arrest and incarceration for individual offenders. This entry ...

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