• Entry
  • Reader's guide
  • Entries A-Z
  • Subject index

Need Principle

In 1990, Canadian researchers Donald Andrews, James Bonta and Robert Hoge proposed three principles that would form the foundation for all effective correctional programming. That is, they outlined the three necessary conditions needed in interventions and treatments for offenders in order to reduce risk of reoffending as well as reduce recidivism (reoffending) rates. This model is known as the Risk-Need-Responsivity (RNR) model of effective correctional treatment. The core of the RNR model is targeting treatment on criminogenic needs (i.e., crime-causing factors).

The risk principle identifies who should receive the most treatment (i.e., the most intensive treatment services should be directed to the highest risk offenders, and low-risk offenders should receive minimum intensity programming). The responsivity principle describes how the treatment should unfold (e.g., use empirically supported ...

    • Loading...
    locked icon

    Sign in to access this content

    Get a 30 day FREE TRIAL

    • Watch videos from a variety of sources bringing classroom topics to life
    • Read modern, diverse business cases
    • Explore hundreds of books and reference titles