The term drug testing refers to a biological process for examining an individual to determine whether she or he may have used drugs (or alcohol) in the recent past. For criminal justice purposes, the process consists of a clinical screening conducted by a designated agent to evaluate the evidence of drug or alcohol use. There are several kinds of drug testing, including urinalysis, hair testing, blood testing, saliva testing, and breath testing.

The criminal justice system has long sought to reduce drug use among offenders, and the links between the criminal justice system and the drug treatment field are historically strong. The criminal justice system in the United States uses drug testing to measure prevalence of drug use among offenders at virtually every level of correctional ...

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