Approximately 60–80% of adults arrested for a criminal offense in the United States test positive for illicit drugs, and more than 40% meet diagnostic criteria for a moderate to severe substance use disorder. Continued illicit substance use is associated with a 2- to 4-fold increase in the likelihood of committing a new criminal offense. Although substance use disorder treatment can reduce recidivism significantly, only about one quarter to one half of persons referred to treatment by the criminal justice system will complete treatment successfully. Low completion rates for treatment are attributable, in part, to the fact that only about one quarter of community treatment programs offer specialized services for criminal justice populations. Most treatment providers are untrained and unprepared to deal with justice involved clients, ...

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