Criminalness has been defined as a nonprosocial behavior that breaks from social conventions and violates the rights and well-being of others. It includes unlawful behavior; however, criminalness may or may not lead to arrestable offenses. Examples of criminalness include abuse of sick leave, taking office supplies for out-of-office use, drug possession, property crime, and/or person and violent crimes.

Criminal behaviors are usually produced from complex interactions among personalities, relationship with others, living environments, and other crime-related factors. Likewise, recidivism, or reoffending, can be influenced by many of these factors. Criminalness is a concept encompassing the factors that lead individuals to offending or reoffending. Without relying on a specific criminological theory, it can be an effective construct in rehabilitation, referring to individuals’ crime-related problem separately from ethics, ...

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