In the field of criminal justice, corrections is an umbrella term that refers to what happens after an individual has been convicted of a crime, sentenced, and placed on supervision (probation) or incarcerated in a county, state, or federal jail or prison. It also includes the subsequent release (parole) from such a facility and a specific period of supervision after release. This process was set up as the best way to assist offenders correct their behavior. Since the mid-1950s, corrections has evolved into a broad field of research and practice that incorporates elements of community supervision, incarceration, rehabilitation, and community reintegration within the scope of the prevailing correctional philosophy and goals. This entry explores the history and goals of corrections, explaining how prevailing sociopolitical thinking ...

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