Cognitive Disorders in Incarcerated Offenders, Treatment of

Mental disorders are frequently associated with varying degrees of neurological impairment that pose serious problems for an individual’s ability to self-regulate, avoid self-defeating behaviors, and attain prosocial goals. The term intellectual disability specifically refers to impairment in functional domains usually associated with IQ scores below 70. Cognitive deficits, however, is a more generic term, also encompassing impairment to essential areas of brain function, though not defined uniquely by low IQ. Individuals with cognitive deficits may test in the average range or higher, but they commonly manifest symptoms of executive function problems such as impairments in attention control, strategic goal planning, abstract reasoning, cognitive flexibility, and the ability to organize and adaptively use information contained in working memory.

The estimates of prevalence of intellectual deficits among ...

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