The bi-adaptive model provides a framework for intervening when the two areas of mental illness and criminalness occur in the same individual. The presence of multiple problem areas (comorbidity) increases negative outcomes. This has repeatedly been shown in the mental health field, as the level of problems at work, distressed close relationships, and generally poorer health outcomes result when more than one mental health disorder is present. In addition, advances in the treatment of co-occurring, or comorbid, disorders have suggested a unified treatment protocol or a combined/interdisciplinary approach.

Drawing upon the co-occurrence in psychiatry literature, a bi-adaptive model of mental illness and criminalness was developed. This model has implications for research, practice, and treatment. For example, through the proposed treatment matrix of intervention strategies, targeted content ...

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