Shoplifting is defined as the theft of goods from a retailer and is a criminal activity that can encompass many different behaviors, such as from pocketing an item and leaving the store to consuming food products within the store and not paying the retailer. Just as there is a wide range of items that can be shoplifted, there is also a vast array of motivations and techniques for committing this crime. Although a formal measurement of shoplifting based on data at the national level is minimal, the body of research on this offense suggests that it is a massive crime problem not only in the United States but also worldwide. Research on shoplifting from the 1950s to present has employed a wide range of ...

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