Risk-Need-Responsivity, Application to Female Offenders

In response to the growing number of females under correctional supervision, researchers and policy developers have shown a marked interest in exploring the situations and circumstances that place this demographic at risk of criminal justice involvement. Gender-neutral theorists holding to the Risk-Need-Responsivity (RNR) perspective argue that with respect to the etiological components of their criminal conduct, similar theories, risk factors, and general treatment strategies generalize to both male and female offenders. In contrast, feminist scholars contend that justice- involved women follow unique pathways into crime and that correctional protocols that were developed largely on the basis of male samples fail to capture the unique circumstances of women. This entry articulates both gender-neutral (RNR) and gender-responsive perspectives on criminal conduct and presents evidence for an integrative ...

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