Recidivism originates from the Latin phrase that means to fall back. It is most often used in criminal justice to refer to a return to criminal behavior, but it may also refer to a return to other behaviors such as substance abuse. Conceptually, recidivism is defined by Michael Maltz as a reversion to criminal behavior after punishment. This means that for one to recidivate, a punishment must first occur. Recidivism may also refer to reoffending, multiple offending, or habitual offending. Although the conceptual definition of recidivism is clear, what criminal behavior may be defined as recidivism often varies. Besides rearrest, recidivism can also mean reincarceration (i.e., the return to custody of an individual who has been previously incarcerated) or reconviction (i.e., a subsequent conviction of ...

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