Several paradoxes may emerge when reputation management recipes are used. Paradox refers to the idea that the arguments for using the recipes can be turned about-face and become arguments for not using them.

Organizations, both private and public, are now expected to manage their own identity and be proactive in positively influencing society’s perceptions of them. They are expected to follow recipes that have been provided by consultants and are associated with previous success stories. Failures and disappointments are frequently explained by a lack of leadership and determination in implementation.

Both organization theories and recipes for reputation management are usually presented as internally consistent and rational. However, since there are multiple theories as well as divergent practices in a given field of action, those who believe in ...

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