There are a number of competing definitions of organizational effectiveness. Organizational effectiveness is concerned with the simultaneous achievement of high production and a highly people-centered enterprise. It also concerns the alignment of senior managers’ judgments about internal efficiency from an economic perspective and external political judgments focused on growth, survival, and control over the environment. Still other views of organizational effectiveness intersect with concerns about profitability, employee satisfaction, and societal value, or focus on the level of productivity in support of, and reliability in the utilization of, the organization’s business model. This entry discusses early thinking on organizational effectiveness, the evolution of ideas about organizational effectiveness, and insights on organizational effectiveness from multiple disciplines.

Early Thinking About Organizational Effectiveness

Prior to the 1950s and early 1960s, definitions ...

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