Marketing can be understood as a philosophy, a paradigm, a process, an organizational function, a management practice, or an academic discipline. There is no universally accepted definition of marketing. In the most general way, marketing is synonymous with exchange, not only economic exchange but also social exchange where extrinsic and intrinsic values are exchanged among different social subjects within the society. Defined as such, marketing covers different dimensions, processes, and outcomes of utilitarian, symbolic, and social exchanges and relationships among those who are or might become a part of this exchange.

In the past decade, several authors have used the term holistic marketing to highlight the complete and integrated view of marketing and its role in doing business in a highly complex and ever-changing environment. ...

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