The heart of image repair theory is some threat to an individual’s or organization’s image or reputation. There are two prerequisites for image repair. First, some offensive event must have occurred. Second, some individual or organization must be held responsible for the offensive event. For instance, the individual might have embezzled money, or the organization might have had a transportation accident. The key is that the individual or organization is perceived as responsible for the offensive act. By linking the offensive event to the individual or organization, the image or reputation of the individual or organization can be placed at risk of harm.

William Benoit published the book Accounts, Excuses, and Apologies: A Theory of Image Restoration Strategies in 1995. This book was a significant advancement ...

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