If reputation is the tip of the iceberg that is visible for analysis, expectations are the rest of the iceberg floating below the water level, shaping the way reputation resonates. Expectations are mental models that affect the formation of relationships that individuals and stakeholders have with one another, organizations, and brands. The word management is added when the aim is a strategic analysis of expectations and their positive or negative implications for individuals or organizations. In the current communication environment, it is impossible to manipulate or control stakeholder expectations; rather, expectation management refers to the management of knowledge extracted from expectations as stakeholders’ mental models resonate from their experiences, information, ideals, and personal interests. Expectation management can be defined as an organization’s ability to manage ...

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