Co-creation is a relatively new concept emerging simultaneously in multiple fields including branding, community, and innovation studies. Co-creation arises in the mutual relationships organizations and their stakeholders form when brand is engaged. Co-creation can involve a multiplicity of stakeholders, such as nongovernmental organizations, business partners, and consumers, but is most often defined in relation to consumers, where it is seen as a new source of value creation. Value is created when consumers move from being passive receivers to active co-creators of the brand. Outcomes of co-creation range from participation in reconstructing brand meaning to collaboration on new product and service innovations.

Co-creation has been facilitated by the spread of digital communication, which has encouraged brand co-creation by enabling companies to reach a broader range of ...

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