Word of mouth (WOM) refers to any kind of communication about brands, companies, organizations, products, or services that originates from stakeholders and is targeted at other stakeholders. It is defined as an oral form of interpersonal noncommercial communication among acquaintances. As the source is considered to be noncommercial and the information experience based, word of mouth is mostly regarded as more personal, honest, and trustworthy than advertising and other marketing communications. Because of this perceived trustworthiness, word of mouth can affect consumers’ awareness, expectations, attitudes, and purchasing decisions, especially when it comes to high-risk purchases. It also plays a crucial role in the diffusion of innovations.

The main characteristic of word of mouth is its valence as it can be either positive or negative depending ...

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