The concepts of action and performance refer to the dual responsibility of individuals and firms alike to increase positive tangible, measurable works and demonstrate observable long-term responsible behavior, while simultaneously decreasing negative impacts and behaviors. Put another way, even if individuals or organizations succeed in achieving work objectives, they put themselves at risk if they simultaneously exhibit bad behaviors. In this sense, positive and negative behaviors exist on two continuums. Not only must individuals and organizations exhibit positive behaviors and pursue positive works, but they also must eliminate negative behaviors and actions. This entry discusses individual and organizational action and performance, reputation building through corporate social responsibility (CSR), variables affecting action and performance, and the role of public relations (PR) in organizations’ action and performance.

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