Setting Influences on Child Development

Setting influences refers to the impacts of the physical environment (including toxins and pollutants, noise, crowding, chaos, housing quality, school and child care quality, and neighborhood quality) on children’s development and well-being. In this entry, the impact of each of these factors is discussed. Much of the current evidence comes from research in the United States and Western Europe. Where possible, research evidence in other contexts is discussed. Where the research is limited, recommendations for future research are outlined.

To better frame known and recommended future research and practice, a holistic, multidisciplinary, and multilevel approach based on Urie Bronfenbrenner’s bioecological model is discussed. Recommendations for more extensive research in the Global South (countries with a low to medium Human Development Index score) and the provision of ...

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