As children build essential academic, social, and physical competencies in the early childhood years, their parents—their first, most constant, and most invested caregivers—play an essential role. Apart from their genetic contributions, parents serve as models from whom children learn a great deal of their vocabulary, as well as guides who support the development of self-regulation and prosocial skills, and gatekeepers who determine how, and with whom, they spend their time. The importance and complexity of parenting makes it an immensely challenging task, particularly when children are young and highly dependent on their families for care. Moreover, an increasing proportion of households must balance these intense family commitments with workplace demands and other community roles. Thus, it is likely that most parents of young children, at ...

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