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Parenting is a multidimensional construct that embodies many behaviors that parents engage in for and with their children, including nurturance, education, discipline, monitoring, management, and providing materials. It also includes attitudes and beliefs that impact parents’ behaviors such as expectations and progressive versus traditional child-rearing beliefs. Parenting is developmental and dynamic in that knowledge and behaviors of parents change over time due to various factors including age of parent and child, number of children, child skills and temperament, and multiple contexts and circumstances.

Overview

Key aspects of parenting found to impact children’s development are sensitivity/nurturance, cognitive stimulation, resources (including time), and management. Highly sensitive parenting includes expression of affection and warmth, as well as emotional availability (e.g., praising or cuddling). Cognitive stimulating parenting includes intentional teaching ...

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