The life span is commonly divided into developmental stages to enable us to understand the specific needs and challenges and the unfolding of capabilities and competencies of children aligned with each stage. Early childhood, sometimes referred to as the preschool years, is designated as the period from infancy to the age of 5 or 6. The developmental period that follows is labeled middle to late childhood, extending over 6 to 11 years and approximating the primary school years, according to John Santrock.

Extending the work of Sigmund Freud, Erik Erikson conceptualized eight epigenetic psychosocial stages of development that individuals progress through during the life course, four of these encapsulating infancy to late childhood. At each of these stages, the individual is presented with a developmental ...

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