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Equity and equality are core constructs in moral development that describe ensuring fair, equal, and just treatment of others, and are relevant in early childhood education in terms of peer interactions as well as student–teacher interactions. Developmental science research provides clear evidence that from a very early age children recognize, identify, and reason about a wide range of transgressions as morally wrong including those involving physical and psychological harm to others, unequal treatment, and denial of rights. Further, even very young children demonstrate the capacity to act in prosocial ways, such as sharing with others and being inclusive. This entry provides an overview of moral development theory that drives research on equity and equality, reviews research findings documenting moral judgments and reasoning related to equity ...

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