Social networks are established as the result of social interactions between individuals and social groups, and they serve as the essence of our social structure. In 1955, Georg Simmel first introduced the idea that it was the nature of ties, rather than the social group, that lay at the center of many human behaviors. Such ties are human associations that construct social networks. Social networks have two ideal configurations—premodern and modern social networks. The former is more encapsulating and less tolerant of outsiders. The modern form of social networks, on the other hand, is more open by allowing individuals to participate in a great number of networks with more ties. The study of social networks is now an interdisciplinary field that involves sociology, communication, management, ...

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