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According to United Nations International Children’s Fund, as of 2017, approximately 200 million girls and women have experienced female genital mutilation/cutting (FGMC). These practices are mostly carried out in 24 countries in Africa but also occur in other parts of the globe. The World Health Organization identifies four types of FGMC. Type 1, termed clitoridectomy, is the removal of the clitoris or its hood. Type 2, excision, is clitoridectomy along with the total or partial removal of the labia minora. The most extreme form of FGMC—infibulation or Type 3—creates a covering seal over a portion of the vaginal opening by cutting and appositioning the labia. Estimates suggest that approximately 10% of cut women have experienced Type 3 FGMC; nearly all of these women live in ...

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