The concept of race as a biological reality has to a large extent been banished from social sciences as it refers to mostly physical characteristics, which are considered as not reliably measurable or biologically relevant and, de facto, socially constructed. On the contrary, ethnicity is used in various academic (science of religion, anthropology, sociology, and political sciences) and non-academic contexts (media, novels, politics, and administration). Ethnicity refers to individuals’ claim to a shared history, culture, religion, language, ancestry, descent, institutions, and political project, all features which may be recognized by other groups. According to the historical and political contexts, ethnicity may refer to majority (e.g., Yoruba in Nigeria) or minority groups (e.g., Aka Pygmies in Central Africa); in some settings, it may refer to indigenous ...

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