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Conceptions of corporal punishment have evolved since the mid-20th century, reflecting a large body of research findings that have been revealed within the context of global shifts in conceptions of childhood. Today, the United Nations defines corporal punishment as any use of physical force, no matter how light, that causes pain or discomfort intended as punishment. While its most common form is slapping/smacking/spanking with a hand or object, it can take many forms, including shaking, throwing, pinching, biting, pulling hair or ears, kicking, burning, scalding, or forcing children to ingest noxious substances, hold uncomfortable positions, or kneel on hard objects. United Nations International Children’s Emergency Fund’s Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys have revealed that, worldwide, 50% of infants aged 12–23 months and 63% of children aged ...

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