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‘Self-esteem’ is a controversial yet popular concept. It is the level of attitude one has towards the self and is generally talked about in terms of high and low self-esteem. High self-esteem is characterised by a strong level of self-regard or affection, whilst low self-esteem is typically associated with mixed or negative feelings towards the self. These self-appraisals not only operate globally but also are often narrowed down leading to individual, attribute- specific judgements, commonly about intelligence, attractiveness, social skills, and worthiness. Research indicates that self-esteem is best understood as a psychological trait and that people with high self-esteem tend to regard themselves in highly favourable terms, although there is still at best mixed evidence that this has a causal effect on quality of life ...

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